Film reel and book that have been damaged by water

First aid for water damage

First aid for water damage

Film and tape is very susceptible to damage from water, especially flood water that will be contaminated with dirt and debris. Each type of object is affected in a slightly different way and requires a slightly different approach in preventing further damage. In all cases, the sooner you can start recovering the objects, the greater the chance of minimising damage. However, the aftermath of a flood is dangerous with many unexpected hazards, so do not endanger your personal safety in an attempt to salvage your collection. Also be aware that wet objects may be contaminated with a range of biological or chemical hazards and good hygiene is required when handling flood affected objects.

The NFSA can assist by providing information on the best ways to stabilise your flood damaged objects and give these precious objects the best chance of recovery.

Labelling an 'orphaned’ CD.
Labelling an 'orphaned’ CD.


The first step is to make sure that the object has actually been affected by the flood waters. Often the film can or tape box will provide enough protection to prevent the water actually touching the object. If the object is not touched then just protect it from further damage that is likely to be caused by the damp conditions such as mould.

The following information contains some simple steps that you can take to salvage and stabilise your audiovisual objects. These are not conservation treatments and objects should still be examined and possibly treated by an experienced conservator before you attempt to play the object.

Bacterial damage to a flood affected film.


The biggest threat to flood affected film is mould and bacteria. Both these will feed off and destroy the film very rapidly. Both mould and bacteria may pose a health risk to people, if the film appears to be mould affected take all the precautions necessary to avoid skin contact with the mould and bacteria affected film and to prevent breathing in the mould spores.

If your film has been affected by floods then:


Flood debris and spider webs on a flood damaged film.

Film dos

  • Rinse the film with the cleanest water you can find to wash off loose dirt or mud.
  • Label the film reels with some form of identifying system. For example a known title or made up tile to describe the content.
  • If you have access to a freezer, place the film in a plastic bag, remove as much air as possible and seal the bag tightly. Label the bag and then place the film in a freezer. Arrange for conservation work as soon as possible. Visit the NFSA or AICCM websites for more information on conservation.
  • If you do not have access to a freezer, place the film in a bucket of cool water and change the water each day until you can arrange for conservation work. This will keep the film in reasonable condition for about 2 weeks before there is likely to be a serious problem with bacteria.
  • Prevent the film from further damage

Film do-nots

  • Do not unwind the film to see if it is OK. The film may have stuck together and any attempt to unwind the film may result in the film being permanently damaged.
  • Do not try to dry the film until you have received advice from a conservator on the best way to do this.


Magnetic tape
Mould affected VHS tape.

Magnetic tapes are objects such as audio and video cassettes and reel to reel audio. Again with magnetic tape mould is a problem and mould tapes must be handled with due respect to your health, however it is the potential for the part of the tape known as the binder to decay that presents the most immediate problem.

MiniDV tapes are made from different materials and these are very sensitive to water. The recovery rate from MiniDV that have been affected by floods is not high so be prepared for some losses with these cassettes.

If your tapes appear to have been affected by flood water then:

Tape dos

  • Rinse the object with the cleanest water available. However, if possible do not use tap water as the chlorine often added to help purify the water may damage the tape, bottled or distilled water is preferable.
  • If there are any labels that are loose or have washed off identify the tape and label as belonging to each other so these do not become separated. It is especially import to label the object as without any identifying information or the ability playback the content will be unknown.
  • Keep the object cool, but do not freeze it.
  • Protect the tapes from further damage
  • If it is possible send the tape for conservation treatment before it dries out.
An audio tape reel with flood debris.

Tape do-nots

  • Do not attempt to play the tape “just to see if it is OK” This will not only result in damage to the tape but also your playback equipment!
  • Do not freeze the tapes
  • Do not try to dry the tapes in an oven


Acoustic recordings vinyl records (LP’s and 45’s) and optical discs, such as Laserdiscs, CDs, DVDs, BluRays, are known as discs. While all these objects are fairly resistant to the immediate effects of floodwater, there may be long-term effects, especially for optical discs.

Mould may be found on some discs but it is more likely to be growing on the paper covers and inserts. If there are signs of mould, take all the precautions necessary to prevent skin contact and breathing in the spores.

Discs that may have no permanent label, for example CD’s or DVD containing home movies, can be temporarily labelled using cardboard and string.

Disc dos

  • Rinse the disc with the cleanest available water.
  • If the centre label on a vinyl disc is loose or has washed off identify the disc and label as belonging to each other so these do not become separated.
  • Once you have rinsed the discs air dry the discs in a dust free environment
  • Have vinyl discs properly cleaned before playing them.
  • CD’s and DVD’s that you have the rights to copy (i.e. non commercially produced) should be duplicated as soon as possible.

Disc do-nots

  • Do not scrub or wipe acoustic (vinyl) discs to remove any mud or debris that does not rinse off easily, scrubbing will scratch the disc.
  • Do not scrub or wipe the label side of a CD, the label may be made from materials that are affected by water and wiping may damage the label which actually helps protect the most vulnerable part of the CD.
  • Do not try to dry the discs in an oven.

In all instances, it is important to seek professional advice before trying to do any more than is suggested above. Audiovisual objects are very fragile and well-meaning attempts to recover the objects often lead to the total loss of the object. Remember that most damage occurs after the flood, so quick stabilising action and seeking professional advice is the best way to ensure that your precious objects will stand a chance of survival.