A film camera exposes a piece of a strip of film to light for a specific amount of time, then moves the film an exact amount so that the next portion of film can be exposed. The film camera also allows a human operator to view the image that is being recorded on the film. An additional objective of the camera might include sending the viewed image onto another device (additional monitors or a video assist system).
A video camera directs light onto an electronic device (CCD or tube) that converts the light into an electronic signal , then sends that signal out of the camera through the use of wire(s). The video camera also allows a human operator to view, through a device called a viewfinder, exactly the image that is being recorded on the tape.1
1 Browne, S. E., 1992, Film Video Terms and Concepts, Focal Press, Boston